There are numerous types of geological phenomena that can be found both on Earth and other planets. These events or formations are generally related to the following: rocks or rock formations, water features such as waterfalls and lakes, plate activity or phenomena resulting from plate activity including earthquakes and volcanoes, and events related to erosion.
There are several definitions that more precisely classify an event or formation as a geological phenomena. Wikipedia defines geological phenomena as phenomena that can be explained by or expand knowledge on the science of geology. Another definition states that geological phenomena are any naturally occurring phenomena that involve the structure, content, consistency or composition or the Earth.
Earthquakes occur when there is friction between two of the major or minor tectonic plates of the Earth’s crust. This friction is often caused by the tectonic plates rising above or sliding underneath each other, and can result in massive amounts of damage and also fatalities.
Deep waterways that were forged by glaciers and extend inland from the sea. Fjords have steep cliffs on the sides and are located near the arctic circles.
These geological events sometimes result in extensive damage and occur when rock, mud or dirt become loosened at a higher elevation and fall or slide to a lower elevation.
Moraines are soil, rock and debris that are left behind as glaciers retreat. Moraines can form as ridges, circular ‘kettles’ or other features.
Rising high above the Earth, mountains form or formed where tectonic plates meet or once met. They almost always occur in groups or ranges, and the tallest of them can have elevations over 6 miles above the Earth.
These features are typically present along fault lines, where pressure that has built up in Earth’s mantle can be more easily released. As the pressure releases, it brings hot magma from the mantle to the Earth’s surface, which cools and forms volcanic structures.